Saturday, May 23, 2020
In my opinion, mental states are not behavioural dispositions, as originally described by behaviourists. Behaviourism was primarily devised to address the flaws of Substance Dualism and present a solution to the mind-body problem. Since then, many other philosophical ideas have provided alternative solutions to the mind-body problem, as well as exposing weaknesses in behaviourism. Behaviourism states that behavioural dispositions are tendencies to react with a certain kind of stimuli. For example, if a person is confronted by a tiger, that person would be disposed to; run away, shout for help and assert Ã¢â¬Ëthere is a tiger.Ã¢â¬â¢ This is what is known as a mental state, a stimulus and the relevant dispositions. This theory seems relatively soundÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A criminal telling a lie may feign confusion, apathy and indifference, hoping to convince people that he is unaware of something. Another argument against behaviourism refers to the stimulus response exper iment of Ã¢â¬ËPavlovÃ¢â¬â¢s dog.Ã¢â¬â¢ The experiment showed that behavioural dispositions could be provoked by conditioning. A bell would be rung, signifying the arrival of food to the dog, whether there was any food or not. The dog would show all the relevant dispositions of hunger salivating etc. However this does not mean the dog was pressed into a mental state of hunger as a result of the conditioning. Simply put behavioural dispositions do not directly correspond with a mental state. Another flaw can be seen in the Ã¢â¬ËBehaviour unnecessaryÃ¢â¬â¢ argument. It suggests that certain mental states arenÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily tied to behavioural dispositions. As an example, a person may have an unpleasant experience such as pain from a broken bone. They would still feel the sensation of pain no matter what they were disposed to feel. The feeling of pain is still present regardless of how you choose to react to it. An additional fault in the behaviourist argument is eviden t when applied to another group of Philosophers. The argument falls apart if the person experiencing the stimulus is a stoic. Stoicism is typically associated with the removal of emotion from oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. However Ã¢â¬Ësuper stoicsÃ¢â¬â¢ have complete control over their behavioural dispositions as well asShow MoreRelatedIdentity Theory And Social Identity1228 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIdentity theory traces its root in the writing of G.H Mead, the American philosopher, sociologist and psychologist who says that the image or the feeling that a person creates for him or herself in a particular society is the result of otherÃ¢â¬â¢s vision, which is created daily and is subjected to change. Richard Jinkens, the sociologist describes that social identity means who we are and who the others are and on the other hand what the other thinks about themselves and others. Further, Mead elaboratesRead MoreSocial And Social Identity Theory1860 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesTurner, the Social Ide ntity Theory (SIT) can be described as the comparison between the individual self and the social self. More specifically, it is the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s perception that is derived from their membership of a social group (ingroups and outgroups) or personal identities. The theory is divided into three different psychological mechanisms: social categorization, social comparison, and the tendency for people to use the group membership as a source to gain self-esteem. A theory is defined asRead MoreSocial Identity Theory861 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesSocial identity theory, it is a personÃ¢â¬â¢s sense that is based around the group they are in, either by their personal identity or with different kinds of social identities. That is, people will try to improve their own image of themselves. The theory was proposed by Henri Tajfel. People can increase their self-esteem by both their own achievement and interaction with a successful group of people. This shows the importance of social belonging . This theory is based around three mental processes, socialRead MoreOutline Of Social Identity Theory1278 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOutline social identity theory and with reference to recent research critically evaluate the strategies individuals or groups might use to achieve a positive social identity. Social Identity Theory (SIT) is a relational term, defining who we are as a function of our similarities and differences with others. It is shared with others and provides a basis for shared social action and the meanings associated with any social identity are products of our collective history and present. Therefore SocialRead MoreIdentity Development Theory And Eriksons Theory Of Adolescence Development743 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe chart above denotes the major theories of adolescence development; however in this study we limit ourselves to Erik EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s identity development theory. For Erikson (1950) adolescence is a period during which individuals seek to avoid dangers of role diffusion and identity confusion by establishing a sense of personal identity. Individuals have to find answers for two major questions Ã¢â¬Å"who am I?Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"what is my place in society?Ã¢â¬ Identity is a Ã¢â¬Å"conscious sense of individual uniquenessÃ¢â¬ andRead MoreAssignment On Social Identity Theory Essay1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages TATA INSTITUTE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES MUMBAI GROUP WORK ASSIGNMENT ON SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY Submitted to: Professor Vijay Raman Enrollment No.: M2015CF026 SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY The Social Identity Theory was developed by Tajfel and Turner in 1979. The theory was originally developed to understand the psychological basis of intergroup discrimination. Tajfel in 1971 attempted to identify theÃ minimalÃ conditions that would lead members of one group to discriminate in favour of the in groupRead MoreSocial Identity Theory And Theories Surrounding Intergroup Relations2244 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pageson ideas presented from Social Identity Theory and theories surrounding intergroup relations. The main ideas from the theories being that people conform with others beliefs, usually following the opinions of the group to which they belong. Social Identity Theory, written by Tajfel and Turner in 1986 considers how people think and act towards a social group, and this is believed to mainly recognise social cognitive theories to be the main grounding for the theory. Turner in 1982 suggested a groupRead MoreNotes On Social Identity Theory1191 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesContextualizing BIRG: Social Identity Theory SIT (Tajfel et al., 1971; Tajfel Turner, 1979) has been explained briefly in the Introduction, which provided an overview on the nature of its construction (Galang et al., 2015) and its implications on ingroup inclusion, intergroup behavior, and self-esteem (Brewer Yuki, 2007). This theory is further discussed here, particularly its conception of group identification and esteem, to give context to BIRG and the framework of analysis that will be usedRead MoreAdolescent Identity Formation By Erik Erikson s Psychosocial Theory Of Identity Development2352 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesCarter, Lauren Professor Christan Amundsen Psych 2314 12, April 2015 Adolescent Identity Formation Adolescence is defined as the developmental stage between childhood and adulthood typically beginning at age twelve and ending at age twenty. This stage for most adolescents is a complex time in which physical, cognitive and social development is at its peak. The balance between life as a child and the quest to transition into the independence of young adulthood presents many challenges within theRead MoreCritically Evaluate Social Identity Theory2060 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesCritically evaluate Social Identity Theory. Who are you? Who am I? These are questions that we all ponder at some point or another in our lives. As human beings we are seemingly inundated with the desire to classify and categorise. We are constantly defining and analysing the differences that we observe in the world, it seems only natural that we would apply this method of classification to our position within our society. More specifically, we want to understand our social identities and this can be achieved
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Compliance and Regulation To maintain expected business practices, governments enact regulations through legislation as a means of ensuring that businesses operate within expected guidelines. Some regulations are proactive, such as Bill 198 (Better known as CSOX, the Canadian version of the Sarbanes and Oxley Act) which places additional expectations on the reporting and auditing of company financials (PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2004). Other regulations are reactive; such as bill C45 that passed after the Westray mine disaster took the lives of 26 workers. This regulation looks to hold company executives personally liable for ignoring safety protocols and conducting behavior with criminal intent in the workplace (Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety, 2014). Regardless of their founding, regulations can impose stiff penalties upon companies that choose not to place focus on implementing the necessary controls in place to ensure compliance to them. The BP Deepwater Horizon Disaster On April 20, 2010, the British Petroleum (BP) leased Deepwater Horizon drilling rig took an unexpected kick of gas pressure from an oil well in the Gulf of Mexico. The release ignited, and through the failure of the blowout preventers progressed into a firestorm. The fire consumed the drilling rig platform, sinking it, causing 11 casualties, and the subsequent release of 4.9 million barrels of oil into in the gulf before the release contained (British Petroleum). The incident isShow MoreRelatedDeepwater Horizon Oil Spill: the Bp Disaster2305 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesAP Environmental Science Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill: The BP Disaster The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico was one of the most infamous industrial environmental disasters ever. On April 20, 2010, a marine oil-drilling dig called the Deepwater Horizon exploded, releasing hundreds of millions of gallons of oil into the Gulf of Mexico. This explosion resulted in the loss of human life, massive environmental damage, and widespread damage to the livelihood of people living along theRead MoreBp s Improve Sustainability And Its Reputation For The Deepwater Horizon Disaster1620 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgentleman by the name of William DÃ¢â¬â¢Arcy is the founder of the world famous gas station BP. DÃ¢â¬â¢Arcy had a thrill over oil and decided to invest all of his savings in the quest for oil in the Middle East. Experts and scientists helped encourage DÃ¢â¬â¢Arcy to pursue the venture. But years started to pass and funds starting to run low, William was starting to feel as if this was the wrong investment. Throughout the years BP has gone t hrough a plethora of ups and downs. From bankruptcy, to not being able to transportRead MoreBusiness Ethics. Bp Oil Disaster Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Deepwater Horizon Oil1214 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBusiness Ethics BP Oil Disaster Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Deepwater Horizon Oil SpillÃ¢â¬ Thelma P. 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Oil was found on the shores of all five Gulf States and many birds, fish, and reptiles perished due to the oil spill (Ingersoll, 2011, p. 1-2;Read MoreWhen Disaster Strikes : Bp s Risk Management Failure Essay1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhen Disaster Strikes: BPÃ¢â¬â¢s Risk Management Failure Risk is a concept that many organizations deal with on an everyday basis. In fact, risk is an integral facet of operating an organization. Risk has negative connotations, but that is a misnomer, because many organizations make use of it for positive gain. One way of looking at risk is that it is what an organization lays on the line so that they can gain something in return. Risk is not inherently bad; it is how an organization manages it thatRead MoreThe Spill Of The Deepwater Horizon1188 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe Deepwater Horizon experienced an explosive blowout on a rig located in the Gulf of Mexico. The explosion was about 40 miles of the Louisiana coast. With the flow of gas leaking out, it caused the death of eleven workers on the rig. About two days later the rig sank, which caused quite a lot of damage to a pipeline that laid drawn-out through 5,000 feet of water. As a result, the oil begin pouring from the damaged pipes into the ocean nearby, at the incredible rate. Th e Deepwater Horizon was builtRead MoreThe Deepwater Horizon Disaster Analysis927 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Deepwater horizon disaster portrays the weaknesses in the current drilling technology, management and design procedures. The outcome of the disaster shows high level of unawareness and unpreparedness, in the drilling companies. In this section, the report proposes various steps, which shall not only prepare the team, but also offer a guideline towards the response, in the case a similar disaster in the future. The proposed solutions include high-tech exploration, categorization of the disastersRead MoreThe Planning Function at BP1307 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesconsists of a number of different steps, including situational analysis, alternative goals and plans, goal and plan evaluation, goal and plan selection, implementation and monitoring/control. The situation at BP is that the company is working to shake off the effects of the Deepwater Horizon disaster. While that issue remains in litigation, the company is continuing onward with its operations, building out its revenues and exploration capacity. The company has remained consistently profitable (MSN MoneyCentralRead MoreBPÃ ´s Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill of 2010 Essay1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction The purpose of this paper is to examine one of the largest offshore oil spills in U.S. history, BPÃ¢â¬â¢s Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2010. This paper seeks to investigate closely the system and the reasons of failure, to answer the questions behind numerous studies on this accident, Is Deepwater Horizon explosion inevitable? and What can we do to avoid such accidents? Within the scope of PerrowÃ¢â¬â¢s normal accident theory, this paper aims to draw conclusions to the above questions andRead MoreThe Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill2022 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesDeepwater Horizon Oil Spill The Context Before the occurrence of the Deepwater Horizon event, BP had already been labelled as having a horrible safety record. A 2009 report by the United States Department of Labour Occupational Safety and Health Administration (Todd Petterson , 2009), indicated that BP had 270 existing fines of a Ã¢â¬Ëfailure to abateÃ¢â¬â¢ and 439 Ã¢â¬Ëwilful violationsÃ¢â¬â¢ of various safety protocols. At the time of the disaster the regulators of the oil industry in the United States was the
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Giggling, Bonnie tripped on her way down the stairs, her foot coming right out of her high-heeled shoe. Ã¢â¬Å"Here you go, Cinderel a,Ã¢â¬ Zander said, picking up the shoe and kneeling in front of her. He helped slip her foot back into it, his fingers warm and steady against her instep. We will write a custom essay sample on The Hunters: Moonsong Chapter Twenty-Four or any similar topic only for you Order Now Bonnie gave a mock curtsy, muffling her laughter. Ã¢â¬Å"Thank you, mÃ¢â¬â¢lord,Ã¢â¬ she said flirtatiously. She felt fabulous, so sil y and happy. It was almost as if she was drunk, but sheÃ¢â¬â¢d only had a few sips of beer. No, she was drunk. Drunk on Zander, on his kisses, his gentle hands, and his big blue eyes. She took his hand, and he smiled down at her, that long slow smile, and Bonnie just absolutely quivered. Ã¢â¬Å"Seems like the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s wrapping up,Ã¢â¬ she said, as they hit the first floor. It was real y getting late, almost two oÃ¢â¬â¢clock. There were only a few groups of hard-core partiers left: a bunch of frat boys by the keg, some theater-department girls dancing with great wide swoops of their arms, a couple sitting hand in hand at the bottom of the stairs in deep conversation. Meredith, Stefan, Samantha, and Matt had disappeared, and if Elena had ever shown up, she had left, too. ZanderÃ¢â¬â¢s friends had gone, or been kicked out. Ã¢â¬Å"Good-bye, good-bye,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie caroled to the few people who remained. She hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t real y gotten a chance to talk to any of them, but they al looked perfectly nice. Maybe next time she went to a party, sheÃ¢â¬â¢d stay longer and real y bond with people she hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t met before. Look at al the new friends her friends had made on campus. Bonnie gave a special wave to a couple of people sheÃ¢â¬â¢d seen Matt with lately Ã¢â¬â a shortish guy whose name she thought was Ethan and that girl with the dark curls and dimples. Not freshmen. She loved everyone tonight, but they deserved it most, because they had seen what a wonderful guy Matt was. They waved back at her, a little hesitantly, and the girl smiled, her dimples deepening. Ã¢â¬Å"They seem real y nice,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie told Zander, and he glanced back at them as he opened the door. Ã¢â¬Å"Hmmm,Ã¢â¬ he said noncommittal y, and the look in his eyes, just for a minute, made Bonnie shiver. Ã¢â¬Å"ArenÃ¢â¬â¢t they?Ã¢â¬ she said nervously. Zander looked away from them, back toward her, and his warm bril iant smile spread across his face. Bonnie relaxed; the coldness sheÃ¢â¬â¢d seen in ZanderÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes must have been just a trick of the light. Ã¢â¬Å"Of course they are, Bonnie,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"I just got distracted for a sec.Ã¢â¬ He wrapped his arm around her shoulders, pul ing her close, and dropped a kiss on the top of her head. She sighed contentedly, cuddling up against his side. They walked together companionably for a while. Ã¢â¬Å"Look at the stars,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie said softly. The night was clear and the stars hung bright in the sky. Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s because itÃ¢â¬â¢s starting to get colder at night that we can see them so Well.Ã¢â¬ Zander didnÃ¢â¬â¢t answer, only made a hmming sound deep in his throat again, and Bonnie glanced up at him through her eyelashes. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you want to get breakfast with me in the morning?Ã¢â¬ she asked. Ã¢â¬Å"On Sundays, the cafeteria does make-your-own waffles, with lots of different toppings. Delicious.Ã¢â¬ Zander was staring off into the distance with that same half-listening expression he had the last time they walked across campus together. Ã¢â¬Å"Zander?Ã¢â¬ Bonnie asked cautiously, and he frowned down at her, biting his lip thoughtful y. Ã¢â¬Å"Sorry,Ã¢â¬ he said. He took his arm off of BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s shoulders and backed away a few steps, smiling stiffly. His whole body was tense, as if he was about to take off running. Ã¢â¬Å"Zander?Ã¢â¬ she asked again, confused. Ã¢â¬Å"I forgot something,Ã¢â¬ Zander said, avoiding her eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"I have to go back to the party.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh. IÃ¢â¬â¢l come with you,Ã¢â¬ Bonnie offered. Ã¢â¬Å"No, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s okay.Ã¢â¬ Zander was shifting from foot to foot, glancing over BonnieÃ¢â¬â¢s shoulders as if, suddenly, heÃ¢â¬â¢d rather be anywhere than with her. Abruptly, he surged forward and kissed her awkwardly, their teeth knocking together, and then he stepped backward and turned, walking in the other direction. His strides lengthened, and soon he was running away from her, disappearing into the night. Again. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t look back. Bonnie, suddenly alone, shivered and looked around, peering into the darkness on al sides. She had been so happy a minute ago, and now she felt cold and dismayed, as if she had been hit with a splash of freezing cold water. Ã¢â¬Å"You have got to be kidding me,Ã¢â¬ she said aloud. Elena was shaking so hard that Damon was afraid she might just shake herself apart. He wrapped his arms around her comfortingly, and she glanced up at him without real y seeming to see him, her eyes glassy. Ã¢â¬Å"StefanÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ she moaned softly, and Damon had to fight down a sharp stab of irritation. So Stefan was overreacting. What else was new? Damon was here, Damon was with her and supporting her, and Elena needed to realize that. He was tempted to grab Elena firmly by the chin and make her real y look at him. In the old days, he would have done just that. Hel , in the old days, he would have sent a blast of Power at Elena until she was docile in his hands, until she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t even remember StefanÃ¢â¬â¢s name. His canines prickled longingly just thinking of it. Her blood was like wine. Not that expecting Elena to give in to his Power meekly had ever worked particularly Well, he admitted to himself, his mouth curling into a smile. But he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t like that anymore. And he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want her that way. He was trying so hard, although he hated to admit it even to himself, to be worthy of Elena. To be worthy of Stefan, even, if it came right down to it. It had been comforting to final y have his baby brother looking at him with something other than hatred and disgust. Well, that was over. The tentative truce, the beginnings of friendship, the brotherhood, whatever it had been between him and Stefan, was gone. Ã¢â¬Å"Come on, princess,Ã¢â¬ he murmured to Elena, helping her up the stairs toward her door. Ã¢â¬Å"Just a little farther.Ã¢â¬ He couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be sorry they kissed. She was so beautiful, so alive and vibrant in his arms. And she tasted so good. And he loved her, he did, as far as his hard heart was capable of it. His mouth curled again, and he could taste his own bitterness. Elena was never going to be his, was she? Even when Stefan turned his back on her, the self-righteous idiot, he was al she thought about. DamonÃ¢â¬â¢s free hand, the one that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t cupping ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s shoulder protectively, tightened into a fist. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢d reached ElenaÃ¢â¬â¢s room, and Damon fished in her purse for her keys, unlocking the door for her. Ã¢â¬Å"Damon,Ã¢â¬ she said, turning in the doorway to look him straight in the eyes for the first time since before Stefan caught them kissing. She looked pale stil , but resolute, her mouth a straight line. Ã¢â¬Å"Damon, it was a mistake.Ã¢â¬ DamonÃ¢â¬â¢s heart dropped like a stone, but he held her gaze. Ã¢â¬Å"I know,Ã¢â¬ he said, his voice steady. Ã¢â¬Å"Everything wil work out in the end, princess, youÃ¢â¬â¢l see.Ã¢â¬ He forced his lips to turn up in a reassuring, supportive smile. The smile of a friend. Then Elena was gone, the door to her room shutting firmly behind her. Damon spun in his tracks, cursing, and kicked at the wal behind him. It cracked, and he kicked it again with a sour satisfaction at the feeling of the plaster splitting. There was a muted grumbling coming from behind the other doors on the floor, and Damon could hear footsteps approaching, someone coming to investigate the noise. If he had to deal with anyone now, heÃ¢â¬â¢d probably kil him. That wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be a good idea, no matter how much he might enjoy it for the moment, not with Elena right here. Launching himself toward an open hal window, Damon smoothly transitioned to a crow in midair. It was a relief to stretch his wings, to pick up the rhythm of flying and feel the breeze against his feathers, lifting and supporting him. He flew through the window with a few strong beats of his wings and flung himself out into the night. Catching the wind, he soared recklessly high despite the darkness of the night. He needed the rush of the wind against his body, needed the distraction. How to cite The Hunters: Moonsong Chapter Twenty-Four, Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
Question: Discuss about the Canada Multiculturalism Immigrants and Citizenship. Answer: Canada is significantly a very popular nation for the newcomers. This country becomes the perfect example of living in diversity and harmony. It can be said that living with and welcoming multiple cultures helps the Canadian people understanding each other and discarding hate, disgust and violence.This is evident that Canadawas started being recognized as amulticultural or cross-cultural society in the year 1971(Aknin, et al.). This essay will analyze the how multiculturalism is being developed in Canada. In this context, it will focus on the comparison between the view of Wayson Choys Im Banana and Proud of It and Will Kymlickas Canada Multiculturalism immigrants and citizenship. This is to be noted that two hundred traditional origins were marked in the Canadian population according to the 2011 National Household Survey (NHS) (Schultz and Caroline). It is evident that the traditional origins had exceeded significantly one million marks. This is to be mentioned as per the report authorized by AMP that significant migrants of Canadahas arrived from China, United Kingdom andNew Zealand. It is also to be noted that as per the 2006 Census by the particular Statistics Canada,783,795Canadian populationrecognized as black, marked as 2.5% of the overall population of Canada (Owusu-Bempah and Wortley). This is clearly evident that 11% of the black population is recognized as the cross-race of the black and white. The term banana in Im Banana and Proud of It refers to the yellow outwardly and white inwardly. According to Choy, the Chinese who are born in the North America act and behave like the white people but they still look like the Asians and therefore they are given the nickname of banana. He comments that the other cultures also earns other nicknames as well, like for example, the Indians are often said apples and the blacks are named as Oreo cookies. Where else, in Canada Multiculturalism immigrants and citizenship, it is said that Canada offers the perfect idea of Multiculturalism comprised with significant co-existence of diverse and different cultures (Modood). This is to be mentioned that the diverse culture comprises ethnic, spiritual, or traditional groups and is established in accustomed practices, cultural conventions and ethical values, thought process, and significant communicative skills and practices. As per the Canadian history, there is a clear and significant impact of E uropeanculture and ethnicity, exclusively Frenchand Britishon their culture by the individuality of the specific indigenous culture. This is to be noted that the important essentials of the cross-cultures of Canadian significant immigrant people have started playing a major role in the mainstream culture of Canada. Choy in his book reveal the very painful experiences of his parents that they endured while arriving in North America. His parents being belonging from the Chinese culture had faced racial bias from the people of North America. On the other side, Canada knows to identify and respect the significant society comprised with multiplicity and diversity among dialects, customs, and religious believes. This is to be noted that in the year1982multiculturalismwas recognized and rewarded by the particular section 27 of the significantCanadianCharter of Rights and Freedoms (Baldwin). The significantCanadian MulticulturalismAct was passed by Brian Mulroney, the former Canadian Prime Minister at that time. This is to be mentioned that thesignificant Canadian Multiculturalism Actis known as a particular law, authorized in the year of 1988. This significant lawhas an objective to realm and enrichmulticulturalism specifically in Canada. According to the multiple historical records thesignificant centralized government, led byPierre Elliott Trudeau,the former Prime Ministeracknowledged in the year 1971 that Canada would accept cross-cultural policy (GgraÃ ¾ulis, Vladimiras, and Vladimiras).It can be said that Canadawould acknowledge and appreciatethe significant diversity in languages, civilizations, religious faith in the Canadian Society. Im banana and proud of it depicts the racial biases that people still suffers from while moving to some other nation and entering into their culture. However, Canada became significantly the first country in the entire world to adopt the practice multiculturalism as an official strategy in the year 1971 (Pfohman and Shannon). It is evident that the specificproclamationsignificantlyrefers to statement of former Prime Minister Trudeau in theHouse of Commons of Canada on the 8th October 1971(Pacione and Darren). This is to be noted that this incident took place afternegotiation, the strategies of multiculturalism and bilingualism would be applied in Canada.It is evident thatCanadian Multiculturalism Act (CMA) of 1988 was authorized as the outcome of this strategy statement(Hershey and Samantha). This is to be noted that Canada is playing a major role in order to executing the multicultural strategy as their official policy. The dedicated organization named Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada (IRCC) is taking all the responsibilities related to thedevelopment of significant strategies and policies and handling specifically permanent and temporary abode visa, refugee security and citizenship submissions. They lead the significant refugees and immigrants to settle in Canada by the significant fund raising companies as the Canadian Caregivers Associationto offernew arrivals with significant and exclusive settlement events. These dedicatedcompanies are known as the significant service provider companies. Choy further acknowledges how the Chinese people risked their life during the Word War II by joining army and only after that they had gained the right to be the citizen of North America. He also considered the view point of the elders of china about the young generation of China who assimilated so very well into the life of North American. He claims that Chinese will never forget their roots as they look into the mirror, it always reflects back. He also pointed out the fact that they are been brainwashed by the lifestyle of North Americans. However, he realized that he is not from any of the world and he therefore tries to find out the foundation of his Chinese roots. And finally, he accepted that he is a banana and he is proud of being a Chinese. Hence, from the story Im banana and proud of it it can be analyzed that Wayson Choy argued about the tough times his parents faced as an immigrant and first nation in Canada, whereas in Canada Multiculturalism immigrants and citizenship Will Kymlicka argued that how Canada welcomes diversity spreading both its hands. Canada is known as one of the country marked by multiculturalism in the significant Western Government. They have already stated the example that immigration can be comprehended as significantly the first and foremost step to the citizenship. Canada has made people learn that the generosity of a country lies in the acceptance of an immigrant and transform the person into a citizen but the story of Choy differs from this. References: Aknin, Lara B., et al. "Prosocial spending and well-being: Cross-cultural evidence for a psychological universal."Journal of Personality and Social Psychology104.4 (2013): 635. Baldwin, Caroline Maureen.Canadian Roman Catholic Young Adults Who Persevered In Faith. Diss. 2015. Casella Colombeau, Sara. "Policing the internal Schengen bordersmanaging the double bind between free movement and migration control."Policing and society27.5 (2017): 480-493. GgraÃ ¾ulis, Vladimiras, and Vladimirasmockien?. "Multiculturalism through the prism of history: experiences and perspectives and lessons to learn."human resources management ergonomics11.1 (2017). Hershey, Samantha.Ethical Pluralism and Informed Consent in Canadian Health Care: Exploring Accommodations and Limitations. MS thesis. University of Waterloo, 2017. Modood, Tariq. "Multiculturalism, interculturalisms and the majority."Journal of Moral Education43.3 (2014): 302-315. Owusu-Bempah, Akwasi, and Scot Wortley. "Race, crime, and criminal justice in Canada."The oxford handbook of ethnicity, crime and immigration(2014): 283-320. Pacione, Darren. "The FLQ trials, 1969-1971: judicial tensions and constitutional questions."Quebec Studies55 (2013): 101-118. Pfohman, Shannon.A Comparison of the Situation of Bosnian Refugees in Berlin and Chicago. Diss. FreieUniversitt Berlin, 2014. Schultz, Caroline. "Mapping of Population Diversity in Canada and Germany: Different Strategies, Similar Pragmatism."Review of European and Russian Affairs11.1 (2017).
Tuesday, March 24, 2020
On completion of this week in you should be able to: Explain what is Ã¢â¬Ëunconscionable conductÃ¢â¬â¢ within the meaning of the ACL Explain what is meant by Ã¢â¬Ëmisleading or deceptive conductÃ¢â¬â¢ in s 18, ACL and identify different types of conduct that might be misleading or deceptive Identify the different types of false representations set out in s 29, ACL Identify defences available for breaches of the consumer protection provisions Suggest possible remedies for breaches of the consumer protection provisions Explain what the law says about Ã¢â¬Ëno refundÃ¢â¬â¢ signs Sale of Goods/Product Liability Please note Ã¢â¬â in this unit we are NOT DEALING with: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sale of Goods Ã¢â¬ ¢ Product Liability Therefore the following paragraphs in Latimer are NOT RELEVANT: Ã ¶7-011 to Ã ¶7-215 3 4 Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) Ã¢â¬ ¢ As discussed last week, the Competition and Consumer Act (Ã¢â¬ËCCAÃ¢â¬â¢) is a federal/Commonwealth statute that: Regulates Ã¢â¬ËRESTRICTIVE TRADEÃ¢â¬â¢ practices to produce greater competition and efficiency in the market for the benefit of consumers; and Protects the interests of consumers of goods, services and land against Ã¢â¬ËUNFAIR PRACTICESÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Prior to 1 January 2011, the CCA was known as the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth) Australian Consumer Law (ACL) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consumer law and Ã¢â¬Ëunfair practicesÃ¢â¬â¢ dealt with by the Australian Consumer Law Ã¢â¬ ¢ Australia Consumer Law (ACL) is Schedule 2 of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) Ã¢â¬ ¢ In this course we will focus on the following types of conduct: ss 20-22: unconscionable conduct s 18: misleading or deceptive conduct s 29: false representations 5 The Regulator Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Regulator responsible for administering the CCA Ã¢â¬ ¢ Primary responsibility: to ensure individuals and businesses comply with Commonwealth consumer protection, fair trading and competition/trade practices laws Ã¢â¬ ¢ Until 1995, was the Trade Practices Commission (TPC) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Also see http://www. We will write a custom essay sample on Legt or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page accc. gov. au Australian Consumer Law (ACL) Who is a Ã¢â¬Å"consumerÃ¢â¬ ? See Latimer at Ã ¶7-012 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Supply of goods or services Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cost less than $40K: s3(1)(a) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cost more than $40K and are Ã¢â¬Å"of a kind ordinarily acquired for personal, domestic or household use or consumption: s3(1)(b) 8 Australian Consumer Law (ACL) Note: The ACL implies non-excludable consumer guarantees for the supply of goods and services to Ã¢â¬Å"consumersÃ¢â¬ : to be discussed later Australian Consumer Law (ACL) Who is a Ã¢â¬Å"consumerÃ¢â¬ ? See Latimer at Ã ¶7-012 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Purchase of goods by a business will be a consumer contract if: goods are personal, domestic or household goods AND not used up in business (eg for re-supply or in the process of manufacture etc) Australian Consumer Law (ACL) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Who is a Ã¢â¬Å"consumerÃ¢â¬ ? See Latimer at Ã ¶7-012 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Section 3 asks: whether goods are acquired to be used or consumed (a consumer transaction) OR whether goods are to be used up in a business (a non-consumer transaction) Unconscionable conduct Ã¢â¬ ¢ The unconscionability provisions provide consumers (and small business) with protection from unconscionable (unfair) conduct 12 Unconscionable conduct Ã¢â¬ ¢ Where one party to a transaction is at a disadvantage, because of: age sickness illiteracy financial needs lack of explanation when required language (i. e. on-English speaking) and the other party takes advantage of this for gain Unconscionable conduct AmadioÃ¢â¬â¢s case: The plaintiff has to establish: Ã¢â¬ ¢ They were in a position of Ã¢â¬Ëspecial disadvantageÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ That substantially affected their ability to protect themselves Ã¢â¬ ¢ The defendant knew, or ought to have known, of the plaintiffÃ¢â¬â¢s disability and not taken advantage of it AND Ã¢â¬ ¢ Actions of defendant wer e unconscionable 13 Unconscionable conduct Ã¢â¬ ¢ Section 20 (ACL): defines unconscionability in general terms Ã¢â¬Å"A person must not, in trade or commerce, engage in conduct that is unconscionableÃ¢â¬ ¦. Applies the common law principles from Commercial Bank of Australia Ltd v Amadio to business disputes Unconscionable conduct Ã¢â¬ ¢ Section 22 Relative bargaining positions of the parties Did the consumer have to comply with conditions that were not reasonably necessary? Did the consumer understand the documentation? Was there any undue influence, pressure or unfair tactics? Could the consumer have obtained the same goods or services elsewhere Ã¢â¬ ¢ Section 21: prohibits statutory unconscionability in connection with the supply or acquisition of goods or services Ã¢â¬ ¢ Section 22: statutory checklist (see next slide) 15 See Latimer at Ã ¶5-756) 16 Misleading or deceptive conduct Ã¢â¬ ¢ Section 18 (ACL): Ã¢â¬ËA person shall not, in trade or commerce, engage in conduct that is misleading or deceptive or is likely to mislead or deceiveÃ¢â¬â¢ Misleading or deceptive conduct Ã¢â¬ ¢ Section 18 (formerly, s 52): most sued on piece of legislation in Australia Ã¢â¬ ¢ Not restricted in its usage to consumers and can be equally enforced by competitors or suppliers against other competitors or suppliers Section 18 was formerly s 52 of the Trade Practices Act 1974 (Cth) 17 18 Misleading or deceptive conduct and the Financial Services Industry Ã¢â¬ ¢ Misleading or deceptive conduct, misrepresentation and unconscionable conduct in relation to financial services are caught by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 and looked after by the Australian Securities and Investments Commission (ASIC) See Latimer at Ã ¶7-240 Misleading or deceptive conduct prohibited Section 18 is made up of the following elements: Conduct by a person In the activity of supplying goods or services in trade or commerce; and Who has engaged in misleading or deceptive conduct or conduct that is likely to mislead or deceive 19 20 What is misleading or deceptive? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Conduct is misleading if it will: lead a consumer astray in action or conduct or lead a consumer into making an error Conduct is deceptive if it leads people to believe what is false, if it misleads as to a matter of fact: Weitmann v Katies Ltd, see Latimer at Ã ¶7-250 The test = question of fact to be determined in context of evidence/facts of each case 21 What is misleading or deceptive? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Courts have formulated the test that a statement is misleading if: it would lead one ordinary member of the public, who is likely to read the statement or be influenced by it into error Case: Taco Company of Australia Inc v Taco Bell Pty Ltd See Latimer at Ã ¶7-250 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ 22 Relevant section of the public Ã¢â¬ ¢ Who is likely to be misled or deceived by the conduct in question? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Need to identify the class of persons who are prospective purchasers and who are likely to be affected by the conduct Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ask: At whom was the conduct directed? Would those persons have been likely to be led into error by the conduct? Case: Taco Company of Australia Inc v Taco Bell Pty Ltd See Latimer at Ã ¶7-250 23 Relevant section of the public Ã¢â¬ ¢ Once relevant section of public identified, consider all who come within it Ã¢â¬ ¢ .. the astute and the gullible, the intelligent and the not so intelligent, the well-educated as well as the poorly educated, men and women of various ages pursuing a variety of vocationsÃ¢â¬ ¦. Case: Taco Company of Australia Inc v Taco Bell Pty Ltd See Latimer at Ã ¶7-250 4 What is misleading or deceptive? Whether conduct is misleading or deceptive is determined by the court using an objective test of: Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ¦whether a reasonable person would be misled or deceived. Ã¢â¬â¢ Standard for assessing conduct The standard should be set by reference to that section of the public who is exposed or potentially exposed to the relevant conduct 25 26 Likely to mislead or deceive Ã¢â¬ ¢ Not necessary to pro ve that anyone was actually misled Ã¢â¬ ¢ Need real possibility or not remote chance that someone might be misled Misleading/deceptive conduct What is Ã¢â¬ËconductÃ¢â¬â¢? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Conduct has a broad meaning and includes: Statements of Opinion Broken promises and false predictions Statements that are literally true but which create a false impression Pre-contractual statements Silence BUT: puffery or self-evident exaggeration that are promotional statements in advertising and that cannot be taken literally (eg the juiciest oranges in Qld), will not be taken to infringe s 18 27 28 Silence Silence may be misleading or deceptive: TPC v The Colonial Mutual Life Assurance Society Ltd Silence Ã¢â¬ ¢ Failure to communicate a relevant fact may cause the true representation of another fact to be misleading Abigroup v Peninsula Ã¢â¬ ¢ No general duty of disclosure BUT conduct may be misleading or deceptive if facts give rise to a REASONABLE EXPECTATION OF DISCLOSURE See Latimer at Ã ¶7-250 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Traditional secretiveness of a bargaining process is NOT a licence to deceive Poseidon Ltd v Adelaide P etroleum NL See Latimer at Ã ¶7-250 29 Misleading/deceptive conduct What is misleading or deceptive? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mere confusion or causing uncertainty will not amount to conduct that is misleading or deceptive. Ã¢â¬ ¢ McWilliamÃ¢â¬â¢s Wines Pty Ltd v McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s System of Australia Pty Ltd Ã¢â¬ ¢ Parkdale Custom Built Furniture Pty Ltd v Puxu See Latimer at Ã ¶7-250 How to avoid acting in breach of s 18 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Comparisons must be ACCURATE Ã¢â¬ ¢ Compare like with like 31 32 Misleading/deceptive conduct Roadmap of s 18 Ã¢â¬ ¢ See Latimer at Ã ¶7-251 False Representations False Representations: s 29 (ACL) Breach of section 29 will result in either: prosecution by the ACCC for a criminal offence OR the injured party being provided with civil remedies (eg damages). The section prohibits the making of false representations in connection with the promotion and supply of goods and services in 14 subsectionsÃ¢â¬ ¦. See Latimer at Ã ¶7-290 to Ã ¶7-375 33 34 False Representations s 29(1)( a): No false representation about the standard, degree of quality, value, grade, composition, style, model, history or previous use of goods Ã¢â¬ ¢ s 29(1)(b) no false representations regarding services Ã¢â¬ ¢ s 29(1)(c): no false representations that goods are new Ã¢â¬ ¢ s 29(1)(d): no false representations that goods or services have been ordered Ã¢â¬ ¢ s 29(1)(e)/(f): no false representations regarding testimonials relating to goods or services Ã¢â¬ ¢ s 29(1)(g): no false representations about performance characteristics, accessories, uses or benefits of goods or services Ã¢â¬ ¢ s 29(1)(h): no false representations regarding sponsorship, approval or affiliation 35 False Representations Ã¢â¬ ¢ s 29(1)(i): no false representations about the price of goods or services Ã¢â¬ ¢ s 29(1)(j): no false representations about repair facilities or spare parts Ã¢â¬ ¢ s 29(1)(k): no false representations about place of origin Ã¢â¬ ¢ s 29(1)(l): no false representations about the need for any goods or services Ã¢â¬ ¢ s 29(1)(m): no false representations about the existence, exclusion or effect of any condition, warranty, guarantee, right or remedy Ã¢â¬ ¢ S 29(1)(n): no false representations concerning a requirement to pay for a contractual right 36 Other unfair practices Bait advertising Ã¢â¬â s 35, ACL: A person is prohibited from advertising of goods or services at a special price where it does not intend to offer those goods or services for a reasonable period and in a reasonable amount See Latimer at Ã ¶7-420 No wrongly accepting payment Ã¢â¬â s 36, ACL: Knowing you will not or cannot supply the promised goods/services See Latimer at Ã ¶7-440 No misleading representations about certain business activities Ã¢â¬â s 37, ACL: A business must not make false or misleading representations about business opportunities See Latimer at Ã ¶7-450 37 Other unfair practices Referral selling Ã¢â¬â s 49, ACL: A person shall not induce a consumer to acquire goods or services by representing that the consumer will benefit after the contract is made by providing names of prospective customers See Latimer at Ã ¶7-480 No harassment and coercion Ã¢â¬â s 50, ACL: No use of pressure tactics or physical force/undue harassment or coercion See Latimer at Ã ¶7-485 38 Other unfair practices Pyramid Selling Ã¢â¬â s 44 to 46, ACL: A trading scheme in which a promoter offers to sell to a participant both the right to sell a particular product or service and the right to introduce others into the scheme in the same way Both the promoter and participants trying to recruit others in the scheme are caught under this section See Latimer at Ã ¶7-470 Other unfair practices Unsolicited Credit Cards Ã¢â¬â s 39, ACL: Prohibits the sending of unsolicited credit or debit cards to a person unless they were requested See Latimer at Ã ¶7-460 Unsolicited goods or services Ã¢â¬â ss 43, ACL: Prohibits a business pushing a right to payment for unsolicited goods or services See Latimer at Ã ¶7-460 39 40 Defences Defences for breach include: reasonable mistake of fact breach caused by a third party or due to some cause beyond the control of the defendant defendant took reasonable precautions and exercised due diligence to avoid contravention publisherÃ¢â¬â¢s defence: reliance on information supplied by another person, information/advertisement received in the ordinary course of business and publisher had no reason to suspect that publication would breach the ACL See Latimer at Ã ¶7-530 41 Enforcement and Remedies The ACL provides that certain breaches of the law are sufficiently serious such that they may be treated as criminal offences, to which criminal sanctions apply See Latimer at Ã ¶7-510 to Ã ¶7-540, see especially Table 1 at Ã ¶7-510 Misleading/deceptive conduct: Remedies Breach of s 18 is not an offence resulting in a criminal penalty: see Latimer, Table 1 at Ã ¶7-510 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Remedies for breach of s 18 include: injunction damages but the misleading or deceptive conduct must have caused the loss or damage suffered Ã¢â¬ ¢ Enforcement and Remedies Penalties (except for s18): $1 100 000 per offence in case of a corporation $220 000 per offence in case of a natural person Undertakings Substantiation notices Public warning notices Infringement not ices Injunctions Damages Other orders: Varying or refusing to enforce a contract Refund money or return property Specific performance Community service Corrective advertising Compliance programs Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ See Latimer at Ã ¶7-520 43 44 No refund signs Ã¢â¬ ¢ No need to display signs about refunds Ã¢â¬ ¢ BUT if sign is displayed, need to be sure that it does not mislead consumers about their rights under the ACL For example, cannot claim Ã¢â¬ËNo refundsÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËNo refunds after 7 daysÃ¢â¬â¢, Exchange or repair only, or We do not refundÃ¢â¬â¢ Signs like these are likely to create the impression that consumers have no right to a refund at all See Latimer at Ã ¶7-370 No refund signs Ã¢â¬ ¢ Consumers are legally entitled to a refund if the implied guarantees have not been met Ã¢â¬ ¢ See www. accc. gov. au: brochure on Warranty and Refund Obligations 45 Consumer Guarantees when goods are supplied The ACL implies into consumer contracts certain non-excludable conditions and warranties (by retailers/suppliers and manufacturers to consumers): Regarding title and right to dispose of the goods: s 51, ACL Undisturbed possession: s 52, ACL Freedom from undisclosed securities: s 53, ACL Goods are of acceptable quality: s 54, ACL Goods are fit for purpose: s 55, ACL Goods match their description: s 56, ACL Goods match the sample (or the demonstration model): s 57, ACL Repairs and spare parts will be available: s 58, ACL Next lecture Ã¢â¬ ¢ Final lecture: week 12 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Tutorials will continue until week 13 (Note the above are mirrored in State Sale of Goods legislation, NOT studied in this course) See Latimer at Ã ¶7-035 to Ã ¶7-100 47 48
Friday, March 6, 2020
Famous Inventions and Birthdays in February Not only is February the month of Valentines Day, its also when a great number of inventions were created and patented, trademarked, or copyrighted and when many great scientists, scholars, and famous figures were born. Whether youre looking for someone who shares your February birthday or just want to know what happened on this day in history, check out the following lists of events that have happened during this month throughout history. Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights From the digital voicemail system to Kooky Doodles, February has celebrated the birth of many inventions and pieces of writing or art. Find out when some of the most popular inventions and literary works were first patented, trademarked, or copyrighted. February 1 1788 - The first US patent for an improvement to steamships was issued to Isaac Briggs and William Longstreet.1983 - Matthews, Tansil, and Fannin obtained a patent for a digital voice mail system. February 2 1869 - James Oliver invented the removable tempered steel plow blade1965 - Alfonso Alvarez received a patent for dual-vent windows. February 3 1690 - The first paper money in America was issued in the colony of Massachusetts.1952 - The first episode of the TV program Dragnet was copyrighted. February 4 1824 -Ã J. W. Goodrich introduced the world to the first rubber galoshes.1941 - Roy Plunkett received a patent in for tetrafluoro-ethylene polymers (TEFLON). February 5 1861 - Samuel Goodale patented the first moving picture peep show machine. February 6 1917 - Sunmaid raisins were trademark registered.1947 - Frank Capras Its a Wonderful Life was copyrighted. February 7 1804 -Ã John Deere, pioneer manufacturer of agricultural implements was born.1995 - Larry Gunter and Tracie Williams received a patent for a personalized interactive storybook February 8 1916 -Ã Charles Kettering received a patent for a self-starting automobile engine. February 9 1811 -Ã Robert Fulton was granted a patent for the practical steamboat. February 10 1976 - Sidney Jacoby was granted a patent for a combination smoke and heat detector alarm. February 11 1973 - National Inventors Hall of Fame was founded on the anniversary of Thomas Edisons birth in 1847. February 12 1974 - Stephen Kovacs received a patent for a magnetic heart pump.1983 - The circular thing that keeps the pizza from hitting the inside of the box top (called a package saver) was invented by a guy from New Jersey. February 13 1979 - Charles Chidsey received a patent for male baldness solution. February 14 1854 - Horace Smith and Daniel Wesson patented a firearm.The 14th is also Valentines Day and someone has patented romance. February 15 1972 -Ã William Kolff obtained a patent for the soft shell mushroom-shaped artificial heart. February 16 1932 - James Markham received the first fruit tree patent for a peach tree. February 17 1827 - Chester Stone patented a washing machine. February 18 1879 - Auguste Bartholdi was granted a design patent for the Statue of Liberty. February 19 1878 - Thomas Edison received a patent for the phonograph. February 20 1846 - John Drummond was granted a patent for molds for the manufacture of candles.1872 - Luther Crowell patented a machine that manufactured paper bags. February 21 1865 -Ã John Deere received a patent for plows. February 22 1916 - Ernst Alexanderson was issued a patent for a selective radio tuning system. February 23 1943 - The song As Time Goes By from the movie Casablanca was copyrighted. February 24 1857 - The first perforated United States postage stamps were delivered to the government.1925 -Ã His Masters VoiceÃ was trademark registered. February 25 1902 - John Holland was granted a patent for a submarine. February 26 1870 - The first New York City subway line opened, and this short-lived line was pneumatically powered.1963 - Hobie surfboards trademark registered in 1963. February 27 1900 - Felix Hoffman patented acetylsalicylic acid, which is also known asÃ aspirin. February 28 1984 - Donald Mauldin received a patent for a knee brace. February 29 1972 - Kooky Doodles were trademark registered. February Birthdays Many famous inventors and scientists were born in February, and a few were even born on Leap Day, which falls on the 29th every four years. February 1 1905 - Emilio Segre was anÃ Italian physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics for his discovery of antiprotons, a sub-atomic antiparticle and an element used for theÃ atomic bombÃ used on Nagasaki.1928 - Sam Edwards was a Welsh physicist who studied condensed matter physics. February 2 1817 - John Glover was the English chemist who discovered sulfuric acid.1859 - Havelock Ellis was an American physician sexologist who wrote The Psychology of Sex.1905 - Jean-Pierre Guerlain invented cosmetics pioneer. February 3 1821 - Elizabeth Blackwell of Bristol England was the first accredited woman physician. February 4 1841 - Clement Ader was a French inventor who was the first to fly a heavier-than-air craft.1875 - Ludwig Prandtl was a German physicist who is considered the father of aerodynamics.1903 - Alexander Oppenheim was a mathematician who wrote theÃ Oppenheim conjecture. February 5 1840 - John Boyd DunlopÃ was a Scottish inventor who invented pneumatic rubber tires.1840 -Ã Hiram MaximÃ invented the automatic single-barrel rifle.1914 - Alan Hodgkin was a British physicist who won the Nobel Prize in 1963 for his work on the central nervous system.1915 - Robert Hofstadter was anÃ American atomic physicist who won a Nobel Prize in 1961 for his work on electron scattering in atomic nuclei.1943 - Nolan BushnellÃ was the founder ofÃ AtariÃ and the creator ofÃ Pong. February 6 1879 - Carl Ramsauer was a German research physicist who discovered the Ramsauer-Townsend effect.1890 - Anton Hermann Fokker was anÃ aviationÃ pioneer.1907 - Sam Green was a noted industrialist and inventor.1913 - Mary Leakey was aÃ British paleoanthropologist who discovered the first Proconsul skull, which belongs to a species of extinct ape that may be an ancestor of humans. February 7 1870 - Alfred Adler was theÃ Austrian psychiatrist first wrote about the Inferiority Complex.1905 - Ulf Svante von Euler was a Swedish physiologist who won the Nobel Prize in 1970. February 8 1828 - Jules Verne was a French writer who wrote From the Earth to the Moon and is considered the father ofÃ science fiction.1922 - Joeri Averbach was a noted Russian chess grandmaster. February 9 1871 - Howard T. Ricketts was an American pathologist who studied typhus fever.1910 - Jacques Monod was aÃ French biochemist whoÃ won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1965 for work on enzyme and virus synthesis.1923 - Norman E. Shumway was a pioneer cardiac transplant surgery.1943 - Joseph E. Stiglitz was a noted American economist.1950 - Andrew N. Meltzoff was a noted developmental psychologist. February 10 1880 - Jesse G. Vincent was an engineer who designed the first V-12 engine.1896 - Alister Hardy was aÃ British scientist who was an expert on the marine ecosystems of everything from zooplankton to whales.1897 - John Franklin Ender was a microbiologist who won the Nobel Prize in 1954 for his research into polio.1920 - Alex Comfort was an English physician who wrote The Joy of Sex.1941 - Dave Parnas is a Canadian computer scientist who pioneered information hiding in modular programming. February 11 1846 -Ã William Fox TalbotÃ was a pioneer photographer and inventor.1898 - Leo Szilard was aÃ Hungarian physicist who worked on the A-Bomb and later became a peace activist.1925 - Virginia Johnson was an American psychologist and part of the noted medical team of Masters and Johnson.1934 - Mary Quant is an English fashion designer who invented the Mod Look. February 12 1809 - Charles DarwinÃ was anÃ English scientist who discovered theÃ theory of evolutionÃ and wrote the Origin of Species.1813 - James Dwight Dana was an American scientist who pioneered the study of volcanic activity and theorized on the formation of continents.1815 - Edward Forbes was a British scientist who wrote extensively on marine biology.1948 - Ray Kurzweil was an American inventor who invented the flatbed scanner, the Kurzweil reading machine, the Kurzweil 1000 OCR software, the first commercially marketed large-vocabularyÃ speech-recognitionÃ software, and the Kurzweil 250 Music Synthesizer. February 13 1910 - William Shockley was an AmericanÃ physicist who co-invented the transistor and won the Nobel Prize in 1956.1923 - Chuck Yeager was an American test pilot and the first man to break the sound barrier. February 14 1838 - Margaret KnightÃ invented a method of making paper bags.1859 - George FerrisÃ invented theÃ Ferris Wheel, which is why the F is always capitalized in its name!1869 - Charles Wilson was an English physicist who invented theÃ Wilson cloud chamberÃ and won the Nobel Prize.1911 - Willem J. Kolff was anÃ American internist who invented the artificial kidney.1917 - Herbert A. Hauptman was anÃ American x-ray crystallographer who won the Nobel Prize in 1985. February 15 1809 -Ã Cyrus Hall McCormickÃ invented a mechanical reaper.1819 - Christopher Sholes inventedÃ theÃ typewriter.1834 - William Preece was an English electrical engineer who was a pioneer in wireless technology.1934 -Ã Niklaus Wirth was aÃ Swiss computer programmer who invented the PASCAL computer language. February 16 1740 - Giambattista Bodoni was anÃ Italian printer who invented typeface designs. February 17 1781 - Rene-Theophile-HyacintheÃ LaennecÃ was aÃ French inventor who created theÃ stethoscope.1844 - Aaron Montgomery Ward founded the mail-order business, Montgomery Ward.1867 - William Cadbury was the English chocolate manufacturer who foundedÃ Cadbury.1874 - Thomas J. Watson was an American scientist who foundedÃ IBM. February 18 1743 - Alessandro VoltaÃ was an Italian physicist who invented theÃ voltaicÃ pile, theÃ first battery.1898 - Enzo Ferrari was the car manufacturer who invented the Ferrari. February 19 1473 - Nicolaus CopernicusÃ was famous for formulating a model of the universe with the sun at its center rather than the earth.1859 - Svante AugustÃ Arrhenius was aÃ Swedish physicist and chemist who won the Nobel Prize in 1903.1927 - ReneÃ Firino-Martell was aÃ Cognac manufacturer who invented several types of Cognac. February 20 1844 - Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann is theÃ Austrian physicist who is considered the father of statistical mechanics.1901 - Rene Jules Dubos was a microbiologist who wrote Health and Disease.1937 - Robert Huber was theÃ German biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in 1988. February 21 1909 - Helen O. Dickens Henderson was an American physician and gynecologist. February 22 1796 - Adolphe Quetelet was a noted mathematician, astronomer, and statistician.1822 - AdolfÃ Kuszmaul was a German physician who invented the stomach pump and discovered Kuszmaul disease.1852 - Pieter K. Pel was an internist who discovered Pel-Ebstein fever.1857 - Robert Baden-Powell was the founder of Boy Scouts and the Girl Guides.1857 - Heinrich HertzÃ was the first to broadcast and receive radio waves and helped to invent radar technology.1937 - Samuel Whitbread was a noted English brewer.1962 - Steve Irwin was an Australian biologist, zoologist, and nature TV show host who died while filming from a stingray attack. February 23 1898 - Reinhard Herbig was a German archaeologist.1947 - Colin Sanders is the British computer engineer who invented Solid State Logic.1953 - Sallie L. Baliunas isÃ a retired astrophysicist who studied global warming and ozone depletion. February 24 1955 -Ã Steve JobsÃ co-foundedÃ Apple Computer. February 25 1904 - Adelle Davis was a naturalist and the author of LetsÃ Stay Healthy. February 26 1852 - John Harvey Kellogg started theÃ flaked-cerealÃ industry and founded Kellogg Cereal.1866 - Herbert Henry Dow was a pioneer in the chemical industry and founded Dow Chemical. February 27 1891 - David Sarnoff founded RCA.1897 - Bernard F.Ã Lyot was a French astronomer who invented the Lyot filter.1899 - Charles Best co-discoveredÃ Insulin. February 28 1933 - Geoffrey Maitland Smith founded Sears1663 - Thomas NewcomenÃ invented an improvedÃ steam engine.1896 - Philip Showalter Hench was anÃ American physician who discovered cortisone and won theÃ Nobel Prize.1901 - Linus Pauling was a chemist who won the Nobel Prize in 1954 and 1962.1915 - English zoologist and immunologist, Peter Medawar won the Nobel Prize in 1953.1930 - Leon Cooper was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in 1972.1948 - Steven Chu is anÃ American scientist who co-won the Nobel PrizeÃ forÃ Physics in 1997. February 29 1860 -Ã Herman HollerithÃ the inventor of the first electric tabulating machine was born on aÃ leap year.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Compare and contrast Christianity with Islam and Judaism - Essay Example All of them rely not so much on internal experience or mystical contact and leadership, as sacred rituals, faith and work, which lead man to God. Each of these religions believes that God has a special Ã¢â¬Å"agreementÃ¢â¬ (covenant) with his followers, although Ã¢â¬Å"terms and conditions of an agreementÃ¢â¬ are different. Jews, Christians and Muslims are united by faith in one God. All we pray to one God, compassionate and merciful Creator, but cognize him, at the same time, in totally different ways. St. Simeon, the New Theologian, who lived in Byzantium at the turn of the first and second millennia, gave the best, in my opinion, interpretation of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s cognition - God is cognized by us so far forth as we can see a boundless sea, standing at night on a coast with a small candle in hands (cited in Neusner, Chilton, and Graham 122). The oldest, out of the three, monotheistic religion of mankind is Judaism. It appeared 1000 BC approximately. The nomadic Hebrew tribes liv ed on the territory of ancient Egypt and around it. Their religious leaders, or prophets, partly borrowed their ideas from religious beliefs, which spread in the region by that time, but with one great difference Ã¢â¬â they practiced the religion in one Almighty God. Hebrews believe that God requires obedience to a strict moral code and claim that they have a monopoly on the truth, considering, thus, their religion as the only correct one. Christianity inherited from Judaism many of the views, which subsequently became its integral part. Ã¢â¬Å"Both Christianity and Islam recognize Judaism as being a foundation for their beliefs. And Judaism, for its part, recognizes that there is a human history that precedes it.Ã¢â¬ (Golomb 18)...Belief takes many different forms; these forms are called religions. The word Ã¢â¬Å"religionÃ¢â¬ is literally translated from Latin as Ã¢â¬Å"connection.Ã¢â¬ Connection with God. Connection with the Universe. Connection with people around. A l ot of different religions existed and exist now.The main concept of Christianity is a belief in Jesus Christ, the only God-Man, and Savior. Jesus was an orthodox Jew and Christianity emerged as a sect within Judaism. By the way, it is not clear still whether Jesus wanted to create his own religion. Another great truth of Christianity is the Trinity of God. Most Christians, and especially non-Christians, have a very poor understanding of the Tripersonality. Part of Jews and Muslims even believe that Christians are not monotheists, but tritheists. (Muslims believe in one God, who is called God the Father in Christianity). The Christian church included into the Bible Hebrew Scriptures Ã¢â¬â the Old Testament, a common sacred text of Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Islam, the second largest world religion, and Christianity have partly common origin. Islam comes from the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad, who lived in the VII century BC and is based on The Five Pillars of Islam - fiv e essential religious duties. Muslims believe that Allah has spoken through the previous prophets, including Moses and Jesus, who shared faith with Hebrews and Christians before the advent of Muhammad, whose doctrine is the most accurate expression of AllahÃ¢â¬â¢s will.